U. S Marine Insurance and Its Types - 360Naija
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INSURANCE

U. S Marine Insurance and Its Types

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The object of an insurance contract is to place the assured after a loss in the same relative financial position in which he would have stood had no loss occurred. By the U.S Marine Insurance Act, the indemnity (contractual obligation of one party to compensate the loss incurred to the other party) “in the manner and to the extent agreed.” A “commercial” indemnity is thus provided. Because insurers cannot undertake to reinstate or replace cargo in the event of loss or damage, they pay a sum of money, agreed in advance, that will provide reasonable compensation.

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In practice, this is achieved by agreeing in advance on the insured value, based on C.I.F., the value of the goods to which it is customary to add an agreed ten percent which is intended to include the general overheads and perhaps a margin of profit on the transaction.

Upon total loss of the entire cargo by an insured peril, the sum insured is paid in full, and if part of the cargo is a total loss, the appropriate proportion of the insured value is paid.

Damage claims are settled by ascertaining the depreciation percentage and applying this percentage to the insured value. The depreciation percentage is calculated by comparing the value the goods would realize in their damaged state with their gross sound value on the date of the sale. The exact date is used for both values to avoid distortion of the result from market price fluctuations.

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In Marine insurance, it is customary to issue agreed-value policies. The agreed value is conclusive between the Insurer and the Assured except in the event of an unintentional error or where fraud is alleged.

“Duty” and “Increased Value” are not agreed value policies. They provide pure indemnity only.

What is Marine Insurance?

Marine insurance covers the physical loss or damage of ships, cargo, terminals, and any transport by which the property is transferred, acquired, or held between the points of origin and the final destination. Cargo insurance is the sub-branch of marine insurance. However, Marine insurance also includes Onshore and Offshore exposed property (container terminals, ports, oil platforms, pipelines), Hull, Marine Casualty, and Marine Liability. When goods are transported by mail or courier, or related post, shipping insurance is used instead.

Features of U.S Marine Insurance:

Offer & Acceptance: It is a prerequisite to any contract. Similarly, the goods under marine (transit) insurance will be insured after the insurance company accepts the offer.

  1.  Payment of premium: An owner must ensure that the premium is paid well in advance to cover the risk.
  2. Contract of Indemnity: Marine insurance is a contract of indemnity, and the insurance company is liable only to the extent of the loss suffered.
  3. Utmost good faith: The owner of goods to be transported must disclose all the relevant information to the insurance company while insuring their goods.
  4. Insurable Interest: The marine insurance will be valid if the person has an interest at the time of loss.
  5. Contribution: If a person insures his goods with two insurance companies, then in case of marine loss, both insurance companies will pay the loss to the owner proportionately.
  6. Period of Marine Insurance: The period of insurance in the policy is for the average time taken for a transit. Generally, the period of open marine insurance will not exceed one year.
  7. Deliberate Act: If goods are damaged or lost during transit because of a deliberate act of an owner, then that damage or loss will not be covered under the policy.
  8. Claims: To get the compensation under marine insurance, the owner must inform the insurance company immediately so that the insurance company can take the necessary steps to determine the loss.

Operation of Marine Insurance:

Marine insurance plays an essential role in domestic trade as well as in international trade. Most contracts of sale require that the goods must be covered, either by the seller or the buyer, against loss or damage.

Importance of Marine Insurance:

Marine insurance is required in many import-export trade proceedings. Admitting the terms, both parties are liable for the payment of goods under insurance. However, the subject matter of marine insurance goes beyond contractual obligations, and several valid arguments are necessary for buying it before dispatching the export cargo.

Goods in transit need to be insured by one of the three parties:-

  1. The Forwarding Agent.
  2. The Exporter.
  3. The Importer.
    Also, it can be taken by anyone involved in the transit of goods.

Types of Marine Insurance:

  • Freight Insurance
  • Liability Insurance
  • Hull Insurance
  • Marine Cargo Insurance

Freight Insurance:

In freight insurance, for example, if the goods are damaged in transit, the operator would lose freight receivables & so the insurance will be provided on compensation for loss of freight.

Liability Insurance:

Marine Liability insurance is where compensation is bought to provide any liability occurring because of a ship crashing or colliding.

Hull Insurance:

Hull Insurance covers the hull & torso of the vehicle. It covers transportation against damages and accidents.

Marine Cargo Insurance:

Marine cargo policy refers to the insurance of goods dispatched from the country of origin to the country of destination.

Types of Marine Insurance policies:

There are many types of marine insurance policies, which are as follows:

  • Floating Policy
  • Voyage Policy
  • Time Policy
  • Mixed Policy
  • Named Policy
  • Port Risk Policy
  • Fleet Policy
  • Single Vessel Policy
  • Blanket Policy

Floating policy:

Floating in Marine Insurance policy, large exporters may opt for an open policy, also known as a blanket policy, instead of taking insurance separately for each shipment. An open policy is a one-time insurance that provides coverage against all shipments made during the agreed period, often a year. The exporter may need to declare periodically (say, once a month) the detail of all shipments made during the period, type of goods, modes of transport, destinations, etc.

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Voyage policy:

A specific policy can be taken for a single lot or consignment only. The exporter must purchase insurance coverage every time a shipment is sent overseas. The drawback is that extra effort and time are involved each time an exporter sends a consignment. With open policies, on the other hand, shipments are insured automatically.

Time policy:

A time policy in marine insurance is generally issued for a year. One can issue for more than a year or they may extend to complete a specific voyage. But it is generally for a fixed period. Also, under marine insurance in India, a time policy can be issued only once a year.

Mixed policy:

A mixed policy is a mixture of two policies, i.e., the Voyage policy and the Time policy.

Named policy:

Named policy is one of the most popular policies in the marine insurance policy. The ship’s name is mentioned in the insurance document, stating the policy issued is in the ship’s name.

Port Risk policy:

It is a policy to ensure the ship’s safety when stationed in a port.

Fleet policy:

Several ships belonging to the company/owner are covered under one policy. Where it has the advantage of covering even old ships. Also, the policy is a time-based policy.

Single Vessel policy:

In a single-vessel policy, only one vessel is covered under the marine insurance policy.

Blanket policy:

The owner has to pay the maximum protection amount when buying the policy in this policy.

Where to get Marine Insurance?

The process of purchasing marine insurance in India is easy. The country’s geographical position allows many banks and financial institutions to provide marine insurance.

Marine Insurance Act 1963:

The Marine Insurance Act in USA came into existence in 1963. As per section three of the act, any time the term ‘marine insurance’ is used, expressed, or even extended for the insuring of goods against loss or damage, the insurer will be at risk of bearing the charges. The insurer will consider all the certainty of goods in case of misfortune sustained during marine ventures.

Principles of  U.S Marine Insurance:

  • Principle of Good faith: Parties demand absolute trust on the part of both; the insurer and the guaranteed.
  • Principle of Proximate Cause: The proximate cause is not adjacent in time; also, it is inefficient. Nevertheless, it is the definitive and adequate cause of loss.
  • Principle of Insurable Interest: Any object presented as a marine risk and the assured covering the insurance of goods – both should have legal relevance. Also, a series called ‘Incoterms’ is devoted to assigning the insurance of goods to each party respectfully.
  • Principle of Indemnity: The insurance extended to the parties will only be applicable up to the loss. The parties can’t buy insurance to gain profits. If they do, they won’t get more than the actual loss.
  • Principle of Contribution: Sometimes, the risk coverage for goods has more than one insurer. In such cases, the amount has to be fairly distributed amongst the insurers.

How does U.S Marine Insurance work?

Marine insurance best transfers the liability of the goods from the parties and intermediaries involved to the insurance company. The legal liability of the intermediaries handling the goods is limited. Instead of bearing the sole responsibility for the goods, the exporter can buy an insurance policy and get maritime insurance coverage for the exported goods against any possible loss or damage.

The carrier of the goods, be it the airline or the shipping company, may bear the cost of damages and losses to the goods while on board. However, the compensation agreed upon is mainly on a ‘per package’ or ‘per consignment basis. The provided coverage may not be sufficient to cover the cost of the goods shipped. Therefore, exporters prefer to ship their products after getting it insured the same with an insurance company.

The Scope of Marine insurance is necessary to meet the contractual obligations of exports. To align with agreements such as cost insurance and freight (CIF) or carriage and insurance paid (CIP), the exporter needs to take marine insurance to protect the buyer’s or their bank’s interest and honor the contractual obligation. Similarly, in the case of Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU) and Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) terms, the seller may not be obligated to insure the goods. However, in practice, they generally do.

To get marine insurance and avoid insurance claims, ensure the following:

  • Packing of goods should be done keeping in mind their safety during loading and unloading
  • Packing should be good enough to withstand natural hazards to the best extent possible
  • Keep in mind the possibility of clumsy handling or theft when packing goods.

Difference between Fire Insurance & Marine Insurance:

Fire insurance is a policy that covers the risk of fire. The subject matter is any physical asset or property. Moral responsibility is an essential condition here. There is no expected profit margin in terms of fire insurance. The insurable interest must be present before taking the policy and at the time of loss.

Whereas the Functions of Marine insurance encompasses risks associated with the sea. The subject matter is the ship, freight, or cargo. It does not consist of any clause related to the moral responsibility of the cargo owner or the ship. 10 to 15% profit margin is expected in terms of marine insurance. Also, in marine insurance, the insurable interest must be only at the time of loss.

Bottom Lines:

Marine insurance and its types is an article that explains all you need to know when purchasing insurance.

The article further explains the meaning of marine insurance, the features of marine insurance, the importance of marine insurance, the types of marine insurance,  the types of marine insurance policies, where to get marine insurance, how marine insurance works, and the differences between fire insurance and marine insurance.

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INSURANCE

The US Health Insurance and Its Types

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There are two types of health insurance in the US, private and public. Most people use a combination of both. The US public health insurances are Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, keep reading… (more…)

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INSURANCE

Whole Life Insurance and its Benefits

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In this article, we will bring you a brief history of the type of insurance that is fit for the rest of your life, the special consideration about this insurance, the meaning of the insurance, the advantages of insurance, the uses of insurance, keep reading… (more…)

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INSURANCE

The U.S.A Insurance Types

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We can’t prevent the unexpected from happening, but sometimes we can protect ourselves and our families from the worst of the financial fallout.

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Selecting the right type and amount of insurance is based on your specific situation, such as children, age, lifestyle, and employment benefits.
Most financial experts recommend four types of insurance: life, health, auto, and long-term disability, which are the primary concern of this article; keep reading…

What is an Insurance?

Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss in which, in exchange for a fee, a party agrees to guarantee another party compensation in the event of a specific loss, damage, or injury. It is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against a contingent or uncertain loss risk.

An insurance entity is an insurer, insurance company, insurance carrier, or underwriter. A person or entity who buys insurance is known as a policyholder, while a person or entity covered under the policy is called an insured. However, this article analyzes the types of insurance in the United States of America. Keep reading…

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Types Of Insurance Everyone Needs:

There are four types of insurance you need to know for you to purchase any of your interests. These types are life insurance, disability insurance, Health insurance, and auto insurance; keep reading…

  1. Life Insurance:

What is Life Insurance?

Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policyholder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money upon the death of an insured person (often the policyholder). Depending on the contract, other events, such as terminal or critical illness, can trigger payment. The policyholder pays a premium, either regularly or as one lump sum. The benefits may include other expenses, such as funeral expenses.

Life policies are legal contracts, and each contract’s terms describe the insured events’ limitations. Often, specific exclusions are written into the contract to limit the insurer’s liability.

The two basic life insurance types are Whole and term life.

  • Whole life insurance can be used as an income tool and an insurance instrument. It includes a death benefit and also a cash value component. As the value grows, you can access the money by taking a loan or withdrawing funds and ending the policy by taking the cash value of the policy.
  • Term life insurance covers you for a set amount of time, like 10, 20, or 30 years and your premiums remain stable. Commonly the most affordable type of life insurance, a term policy can work to cover the years during which a mortgage loan is outstanding or throughout your children’s college years.

Life insurance is critical if your family is dependent on your salary. Industry experts suggest a policy that pays out ten times your yearly income.

When estimating the life insurance you need, factor in funeral expenses. Then calculate your family’s daily living expenses. These may include mortgage payments, outstanding loans, credit card debt, taxes, child care, and future college costs.

According to a 2021 study by LIMRA, formerly the Life Insurance and Market Research Association, more than half of U.S. households rely on dual incomes. The study also found that a quarter of families would experience financial hardship within one month of a wage earner’s death.

  1. Health Insurance:

What is Health Insurance?

Health insurance or medical insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses. As with other types of insurance, the risk is shared among many individuals. By estimating the overall risk of health risk and health system expenses over the risk pool, an insurer can develop a routine finance structure, such as a monthly premium or payroll tax, to provide the money to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.

Health insurance can be obtained through your employer, the federal health insurance marketplace, or private insurance you buy for yourself and your family by contacting health insurance companies directly or through a health insurance agent.

Only 9.2% of the American population was without insurance coverage in 2021, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported in its National Center for Health Statistics. More than 60% got their coverage through an employer or private insurance marketplace. At the same time, the rest were covered by government-subsidized programs, including Medicare and Medicaid, veterans’ benefits programs, and the federal marketplace established under the Affordable Care Act.

The Option for Health Insurance:

Even a minimal policy is better than none if you’re on a tight budget. If your income is low, you may be one of the 80 million Americans eligible for Medicaid.

If your income is moderate but doesn’t stretch to insurance coverage, you may be eligible for subsidized coverage under the federal Affordable Care Act.

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The best and least expensive option for salaried employees is usually participating in your employer’s insurance program if your employer has one. The average annual premium cost to the employee in an employer-sponsored healthcare program was $7,739 for single coverage and $22,221 for a family plan in 2021, according to research published by the Kaiser Family Foundation.

  1. Long-Term Disability Coverage:

Sometimes an employee may involve in an accident that results in long-term recovery or life disability. In this case, if you purchase disability insurance from the initial stage, the company will pay your compensation according to the teams of agreement. Keep reading…

What is long-term disability insurance?

Long-term disability insurance is defined as a policy that pays you, the policyholder, direct monthly benefits to replace a portion of your earnings if you become disabled and cannot work in your occupation.

This form of disability insurance is designed to cover severe injuries and illnesses that keep you out of work for three months or longer, as well as permanent disabilities that leave you unable to return to work.

Long-term disability coverage is a wise investment for healthy, employed individuals who want to secure their financial future. You can get covered by yourself, as a part of a group, or both.

Long-term disability insurance supports those who become unable to work. According to the Social Security Administration, one in four workers entering the workforce will become disabled before they reach retirement age.

While health insurance pays for hospitalization and medical bills, you are often burdened with all the expenses covered by your paycheck. Many employers offer short- and long-term disability insurance as part of their benefits package. This would be the best option for securing affordable disability coverage.

Things to know before purchasing insurance for yourself;

If your employer doesn’t offer long-term coverage, here are some things to consider before purchasing insurance on your own:

  • A policy that guarantees income replacement is optimal. Many policies pay 40% to 70% of your income.
  • The cost of disability insurance is based on many factors, including age, lifestyle, and health. The average cost is 1% to 3% of your annual salary.
  • Before you buy, read the fine print. Many plans require a three-month waiting period before the coverage kicks in, provide a maximum of three years’ worth of coverage, and have significant policy exclusions.
  1. Auto Insurance:

Our access, like cars and other road appliances, must be covered against accidents to avoid losses; keep reading…

What is Auto Insurance?

Auto Insurance (also known as car, motor, or vehicle insurance) is insurance for cars, trucks, motorcycles, and other road vehicles. Its primary use is to provide financial protection against physical damage or bodily injury resulting from traffic collisions and against liability that could also arise from incidents in a vehicle. Vehicle insurance may additionally offer financial protection against vehicle theft and damage to the vehicle sustained from events other than traffic collisions.

Despite years of improvements in auto safety, an estimated 31,720 people died in traffic accidents on U.S. roads and highways in the first nine months of 2021, according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

Almost all states require drivers to have auto insurance, and the few that don’t still hold drivers financially responsible for any damage or injuries they cause. Here are your options when purchasing car insurance:

Liability coverage:

It pays for property damage and injuries you cause to others if you’re at fault for an accident and also covers litigation costs and judgments or settlements if you’re sued because of a car accident.

Comprehensive and collision coverage:

Collision insurance pays to repair or replace your car after an accident, regardless of fault. Comprehensive insurance covers theft and damage to your car due to floods, hail, fire, vandalism, falling objects, and animal strikes. This type of insurance is mandatory when you finance your car or lease a car.

Uninsured/underinsured motorist (UM) coverage:

Suppose an uninsured or underinsured driver strikes your vehicle. In that case, this coverage pays for you and your passenger’s medical expenses and may also account for lost income or compensate for pain and suffering.

Personal injury protection (PIP):

PIP insurance helps reimburse you and your passengers for rehabilitation and lost wages.

Medical payment coverage:

MedPay coverage helps pay for medical expenses, typically between $1,000 and $5,000, for you and your passengers if you’re injured in an accident.

As with all insurance, your circumstances will determine the cost. Compare several rate quotes and the coverage provided, and check periodically to see if you qualify for a lower rate based on your age, driving record, or the area where you live.

Read also U.S fire insurance here.

Conclusion:

Most experts agree that life, health, long-term disability, and auto insurance are the four types of insurance you must have. Employer coverage is often the best option, but if that is unavailable, obtain quotes from several providers as many provide discounts; if you purchase more than one type of coverage, you are equally on the safest side.

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